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Automotive knowledge encyclopedia

Car terminology mobilization:


1. Wheelbase (mm): the distance from the center of the front axle of the car to the center of the rear axle.


2. Turning radius (mm): The radius of the orbital circle of the center plane of the outer steering wheel of the car on the vehicle support plane when the car is turning. The turning radius when the steering wheel is turned to the extreme orientation is the minimum turning radius.


3. Maximum total mass (kg): The total mass of the car when it is fully loaded.


4. Number of wheels and number of driving wheels (n×m): The number of wheels is measured by the number of wheels, n represents the total number of wheels of the car, and m represents the number of driving wheels.


5. Minimum ground clearance (mm): When the car is fully loaded, the lowest point to the ground.


6. Maximum loading mass (kg): The maximum loading quality of the car as it travels on the road.


7. Rear overhang (mm): the interval from the last end of the car to the center of the rear axle.


8. Track (mm): the interval between the center lines of the treads of the left and right tires of the same car.


9. Vehicle quality (kg): The car is fully equipped with good quality, including the quality of all equipment such as smooth oil, fuel, trucking equipment and spare tire.


10. Maximum speed (km/h): The maximum speed that a car can reach when traveling on a straight road.


11. Car width (mm): the interval between the north and south poles of the width direction of the car.


12. Car height (mm): the interval between the highest point of the car and the ground.


13. Length (mm): The interval between the north and south poles of the length of the car.


14. Uniform fuel consumption (l/100km): The average fuel consumption per 100 kilometers when the car travels on the road.


15. Departure angle (°): The angle between the tangent to the rear wheel and the ground on the rear end of the car.


16. Maximum grade (%): The maximum climbing ability of the car when it is fully loaded.


17. Front overhang (mm): the interval from the front end of the car to the center of the front axle.


18. Maximum axle load mass (kg): The maximum total mass carried by a single axle of a car. It is related to the transit.


19. Close-angle (°): The angle between the tangent of the front wheel and the ground on the front end of the car.


English abbreviation for car equipment:


GAS variable geometry air intake system


ASC Acceleration Anti-Slip Manipulator


ITEC clutchless electronic handgrip system


ABS anti-dead lock brake system


ABS+T anti-dead lock brake system + tracking system


RSP electronic stability program


EES seat active conditioning system


DSE comprehensive security


SAHR active safety headrest


TCS anti-skid control system


GOA all-round body collision structure


Basic parameters of the initiator


The basic parameters of the car launcher include the number of cylinders in the engine, the way the cylinder is placed, the valve, the displacement, the highest output power, and the maximum torque.


Number of valves


Most of the domestically-launched engines use two valves per cylinder, namely one intake valve and one exhaust valve. The foreign car launching machine uses four valve structures per cylinder, namely two intake valves and two exhaust valves. Exhaust power; some foreign companies start with 5 valve structures per cylinder, namely 3 intake valves and 2 exhaust valves. The primary effect is to increase the intake air volume and make the incineration more complete. The number of valves is not as good as possible. The 5 valves can indeed improve the intake power, but the structure is extremely messy, the processing is difficult, and the selection is less. The new Jetta king produced in China chooses the five-valve initiator.


Cylinder placement method


Generally, the cylinders of the initiators below 5 cylinders are arranged in an in-line manner, and a small number of 6-cylinder initiators are also inline. The cylinder block of the in-line engine is arranged in a line, the cylinder block, the cylinder head and the crankshaft are simple in structure, low in production cost, good in low-speed torque characteristics, low in fuel consumption, compact in size, widely used, and low in power. The in-line 6-cylinder has a good dynamic balance and the oscillation is relatively small. Most of the 6 to 12 cylinder initiators use V-shaped placement, and the V-shaped cylinder is divided into four columns by staggered view points. The shape is compact, and the V-shaped launcher has small length and height dimensions, which is very convenient to place. The structure of the V8 initiator is very messy, the production cost is very high, so the application is less, the V12 initiator is too big and heavy, and only a few high-class cars are selected.


Number of cylinders


The number of cylinders used in car launchers is 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 cylinders. Initiators with a displacement of less than 1 liter are commonly used for 3 cylinders, 2.5 liters are generally 4 cylinders, 3 liters for 6 liters, 4 liters for 8 cylinders, and 5.5 liters for 12 cylinders. machine. Generally speaking, under the equal cylinder diameter, the more the cylinder number, the larger the displacement and the higher the power; under the equal displacement, the more the cylinder number, the smaller the cylinder diameter, the higher the rotation speed, and then the larger the progressive power.


Exhaust volume


The cylinder working volume refers to the volume of gas swept by the piston from top dead center to bottom dead center. It is also called single cylinder displacement, which depends on the bore diameter and piston stroke. The initiator displacement is the sum of the working volumes of the cylinders and is generally used to indicate (l). Initiator displacement is one of the most important structural parameters. It is more representative of the size of the initiator than the cylinder diameter and the number of cylinders. Many indicators of the initiator are closely related to the displacement.


Maximum torque


The torque output by the initiator from the crankshaft end is indicated by N.m/r/min. The maximum torque is generally presented in the medium and low speed of the initiator. As the speed increases, the torque will decrease. Of course, we must weigh the choices and how to use them properly and not ruin the existing functions. For example, it is necessary to open air conditioners in winter and summer in Beijing. When selecting the power of the launching machine, it must be considered too small; only when commuting to and from the city ring, there is no need to pick up the high-powered launching machine. Try to be economical and reasonable to choose the initiator.


Maximum output power


The maximum output power is generally indicated by horse (ps) or kilowatt (kw). The output power of the initiator is very close to the speed. With the addition of the speed, the power of the initiator is also improved accordingly. However, after a certain speed, the power is declining. Generally, the maximum output power in the car operating instructions is expressed in terms of revolutions per minute (r/min), such as 100 ps/5000 r/min, that is, the maximum output power is 100 hp at 5000 rpm.


Turbocharger


The turbine consists of two parts, one is the fresh air booster end, the other part is the exhaust gas drive end, and each has an impeller on each side. On the same shaft, the shaft is supported by the bushing. The rotational power of the turbocharger impeller comes from the exhaust. The turbocharger housing is made of nickel, chrome and silicon alloy and the shaft is made of chrome and molybdenum alloy. More importantly, the turbocharger operates at high temperature and high speed. To ensure its normal operation, oil and coolant are introduced into the turbocharger to ensure useful smoothness and cooling, and to improve working conditions. . The exhaust gas with high temperature and high pressure discharged from the initiator enters the supercharger, and the impeller of the propeller shaft rotates at a high speed of tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute. At idle speed, the impeller rotates at 12,000 rpm. At full load, the impeller speed can reach 135,000 rpm, and the general bearing is unable to accept such high-speed and high-temperature wear.


5V


V is the initial letter of the English "valve" (value). The traditional car engine has a 4-valve structure, that is, two intake valves and two exhaust valves, which ensure the full and useful intake and exhaust, which is beneficial to the advancement of the engine speed and then reach the maximum power of the initiator. . 5 valve skills are now widely used in foreign car companies, the new "Bao Lai" listed in China has selected 5 valve skills, namely 3 intake valves, 2 exhaust valves. The German mass car company is the leader in the use of 5 valves.


High brake light


The general equipment is at the upper part of the rear of the vehicle, so that the vehicle traveling behind is easy to find the brakes of the front vehicle, and has the intention of preventing the attack of the rear-end trouble. Because the average car has two brake light devices at the rear of the car, one left and one right, so the high brake light is also called the third brake light.


Snap code alarm


The principle of operation of the mobile phone is the same. In addition to having the same transmission and receiving frequency between the transmitter and the anti-theft host system of the remote control of the code-based car alarm, there is also a code to identify each other.


The code of the anti-theft device is a set of data combined by different methods and is a key to the anti-theft device. On the one hand, it records the identity material (identity code) of the anti-theft device, and the difference is different for each anti-theft device; on the other hand, it also contains the anti-theft function instruction material (material code or instruction code), which is responsible for opening or closing the anti-theft device. , control all functions of the anti-theft device. With this set of passwords, the key to opening the alarm is also mastered.


According to the difference of the code transmission method, the remote control car alarm is mainly divided into two types: fixed code alarm and code code alarm. In the early stage, the anti-theft method used the fixed code method, but because of its own defects, it has gradually been replaced by the advanced code-based anti-theft device.


Anti-robbery


Car owners, especially taxis, drive outside the city. If they encounter a few hijacked cars, they are no longer single-handed. With a strong GPS system support, the owner only needs to press the alarm switch, and the vehicle will announce the robbery alarm to the monitoring center. If the alarm switch is found and damaged, the damaged system can actively announce the alarm signal, and the monitoring center immediately initiates the active stalking system, and immediately returns the vehicle's position information to 110 to timely rescue the vehicle owner.


The fuel cell


A fuel cell is an electrochemical power generation device. It is different from the battery in the usual sense.


The first principle is that the fuel cell directly converts chemical energy into electrical energy in an electrochemical manner. It does not pass through the heat engine process and is therefore not subject to the Carnot cycle. The energy conversion power is high (40-60%); there is almost no NOx and SOx emissions. Moreover, CO2 emissions are also reduced by more than 40% compared to conventional power plants. It is precisely because of these outstanding advantages that the research and development of fuel cell skills are highly valued by countries* and large companies, and are considered to be the clean, efficient power generation skills of choice in the 21st century.


F_MPV


F_MPV evolved from the concept of MPV. MPV is the abbreviation of English multi purpose vehicles. It is generally translated into a multi-purpose car or a multi-purpose car. The earliest in our country is the American General Chevrolet Lumina, known as the "bullet", and the French "Renault". Space" (Renault Espace) and so on. And F_PV is the concept of our Chinese people, F (family) is the meaning of the family. For example, the newly-launched “Changhe Big Dipper” F_MPV, the concept of a multi-purpose car for the first time, can be used for both passengers and cargo. With the progress of people's living standards, driving F_MPV is also very pleasant.


GPS


GPS is the abbreviation of Global Postioning System, which is the global satellite positioning system. In addition to the United States, there are also global positioning systems in Russia and the European Union. In general, GPS refers to the US Global Positioning System. It can receive the navigation signals emitted by more than three satellites from 24 satellites launched by the United States. It can accurately measure the instantaneous position of the object at any address and at any time. It is arguably the latitude, longitude, altitude and speed of the object. information. GPS is only used in the military field. Now GPS has been widely used in the transportation profession. It uses GPS positioning skills combined with wireless communication skills (GSM or CDMA), mantle information management system (GIS) and other high-tech skills to complete the vehicle. Monitoring, through the digital channel of the GSM network, the signal is sent to the vehicle monitoring center. The monitoring center converts the position information through the differential skill, and then displays the position signal in the map language through the GIS, and finally can complete the navigation and theft of the vehicle through the service center. Anti-robbery, service rescue, long-distance monitoring, track record and other functions.


Anti-theft function


When the owner is out of the vehicle and the vehicle is in a safe fortification situation, if someone illegally opens the door or initiates the vehicle, the vehicle will take the initiative to report the alarm. At this time, the owner's mobile phone and vehicle monitoring center will receive an alarm call together, and the owner will not be injured. The center's duty officer will immediately contact 110 alarms; and the vehicle will initiate the oil cut-off and power-off procedures.


ABS


It is an abbreviation of the English "anti-lock break system", translated into Chinese as "anti-dead lock brake system". It is a safety brake control system with anti-slip, anti-lock and other strengths. A car without the equipment ABS system, when it encounters an urgent situation, it is too late to step by step, and only one foot can be killed. At this time, the wheel is simply locked, and the inertia of the vehicle sprints, and there may be risk situations such as side slip, deviation, and direction. In the case of a car equipped with ABS, when the wheel row reaches the next lock point, the brake can be effected 60 to 120 times in one second, which is equivalent to constantly braking and relaxing, which is similar to the mechanical "point brake". Therefore, it is possible to prevent the direction from being out of control and the side slip of the wheel when the brake is applied, so that the wheel is not locked when the brake is braked, and the tire does not collide with the ground at one point, thereby increasing the conflicting force and making the braking power reach 90% or more.


Generally speaking, in the case where the braking force is slowly applied, the ABS is not effective, and the ABS only needs to be effective when the braking force is suddenly added to make the wheel speed cancel. Another primary effect of ABS is that the brakes are redirected together to avoid obstruction. Therefore, when the braking interval is short and the obstacle is not prevented, the agile braking is the best choice to prevent the accident.


It is worth noting that the car is equipped with ABS, which does not mean that everything is fine. Therefore, in this case, the owner of the ABS system is advised that he will not be able to bravely and superbly control the incident, and that ABS will not save you.


Navigation function


It is also the function of electronic map, this function is the orthodox function of GPS. The owner only needs to enter the starting point and the end, and the system will give the best shortcut between the two places to the owner. It is a pity that this skill is still a concept in our country in the short term. It is said that China FAW and other enterprises have begun to develop an autonomous navigation system, so car owners have reason to trust that GPS navigation effects will be realized in the near future.


Nowadays, the first priority in China is through voice navigation. The owner can get the position of the vehicle through the monitoring center of the vehicle, and can also query the center for the walking route. Compared with foreign electronic maps, this kind of voice navigation can not only be perfect, but it can reduce the pressure on the owner to watch the map while driving. The owner can easily get guidance by simply using the speakerphone.


Center door lock


The central door lock refers to a control device that can be operated to close and open the door of the vehicle through a switch provided on the door of the driving seat.


The central door lock uses a switch to control other switches, which use electromagnetic driving to perform the closing and opening of the door lock. There are two ways to implement the central door lock fulfillment mechanism: one is the electromagnetic coil method, and the other is the DC motor method. Both methods change the direction of the object's motion by changing the polarity of the DC to perform closed or open motion.


Now, the center door lock of the car is mostly electromagnetic coil type. When the positive current is given to the electromagnetic coil when the door is locked, the magnet drives the connecting rod to move to the left to buckle the door locking tongue. When the solenoid is reversed when the door is opened, the magnet drives the link to the right to disengage the door lock tongue.


The principle of the DC motor type is that the driving force of the connecting rod is supplied by a reversible DC motor, and the forward and reverse rotation of the motor is used to complete the operation of locking the door and opening the door.


The above is the center door lock