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Pickup - Automotive Basics

PICK-UP is also known as the car card. As the name suggests, it is also a type of car with a car head and cab, and an open truck compartment. It is characterized by the comfort of a car, without losing its power, and is more capable than the car's cargo and poorly adapted roads. Basic knowledge of automobiles, automotive knowledge. The most common pickup truck type is the double-row pickup truck, which is currently the largest and the most popular pickup truck in the market.

6, SKD car - automotive basics

SKD is the abbreviation of Semi-KnockedDown in English, which means "semi-bulk". In other words, SKD cars refer to cars that are imported from abroad (such as engines, cabs, chassis, etc.) and then assembled at domestic car factories. SKD is equivalent to making a car a "semi-finished product". After importing, it is simply assembled into a complete vehicle.

7, concept car - car basics

The concept car was translated from English ConceptMail. The concept car is not the model that Ep will be put into production. It is just a way to show people the novelty, uniqueness and advancement of the designers. Basic knowledge of automobiles, automotive knowledge. The concept car is still in the stage of creativity and experimentation, and it is likely that it will never be put into production. Because it is not a mass-produced commodity car, each concept car can get rid of the constraints of the manufacturing level, and even show its unique charm even exaggeratedly.

8, classic car - car basics

Classic cars are also called classical cars, generally referring to cars 20 years ago or older. A classic car is a nostalgic product. It is a car that people used to use and can still work now.

Third, the classification of car characteristics

1, electric car - car knowledge encyclopedia

At present, electric vehicles are mostly referred to as pure electric vehicles, that is, a vehicle that uses a single battery as a power source for energy storage. It uses the battery as the energy storage power source, and supplies power to the motor through the battery to drive the motor to run, thus pushing the car forward. From the appearance point of view, there is no difference between electric vehicles and cars that are common in Japan. The difference lies mainly in the power source and its drive system.

2, zero-emission car - automotive knowledge

Zero-emission vehicles are vehicles that do not emit any harmful pollutants, such as solar cars, pure electric vehicles, and hydrogen cars. Sometimes people also call zero-emission vehicles green cars, eco-cars, eco-cars, and clean cars.

3, hybrid car - automotive knowledge

A hybrid car is an internal combustion engine installed on a pure electric vehicle. The purpose is to reduce the pollution of the car and increase the mileage of the pure electric vehicle. Hybrid vehicles are available in both series and parallel configurations.

4, gas car - car knowledge Daquan

Gas vehicles mainly include compressed natural gas vehicles (LPG vehicles or LPGV for short) and compressed natural gas vehicles (CNG vehicles or CNGV for short). As the name suggests, LPG vehicles are fueled by liquefied petroleum gas, and CNG vehicles are fueled by compressed natural gas. The CO emissions of gas vehicles are more than 90% lower than that of gasoline vehicles, hydrocarbon emissions are reduced by more than 70%, and nitrogen oxides emissions are reduced by more than 35%. It is a relatively practical low-emission vehicle.

Fourth, Europe II emission standards

The pollutants emitted by automobile exhaust mainly include hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulates (PM), etc., which are mainly discharged through automobile exhaust pipes. Due to the increasingly serious environmental hazards caused by pollutants emitted by automobiles, countries and regions around the world have set limits on the limits of vehicle emissions. The European standard set by the European Union is a reference standard implemented by most countries and regions. For example, consider a car with no more than 6 passengers (including drivers) and a maximum total mass of 2.5t:

The limits of emission standards that must be met in China from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2003 are: carbon monoxide should not exceed 3.16g/km; hydrocarbons should not exceed 1.13g/km; Must not exceed 0.18g/km; durability requirement is 50,000km. After January 1, 2004, the standard has been improved: the carbon monoxide of gasoline vehicles does not exceed 2.2g/km, the hydrocarbons do not exceed 0.5g/km, the carbon monoxide of diesel vehicles does not exceed 1.0g/km, and the hydrocarbons do not exceed 0.7. g/km, the particulate matter does not exceed 0.08 g/km. This is the European II emission standard that China will implement in 2004.

V. Car recall

The so-called car recall (RECALL) is the car that is put on the market. It is found that there are defects due to design or manufacturing reasons, and it does not comply with relevant regulations and standards, which may lead to safety and environmental protection problems. The manufacturer must report the product to the relevant state departments in time. There are problems, causes of problems, improvement measures, etc., and applications for recalls are made. After approval, the vehicles in use are modified to eliminate hidden dangers. The countries currently implementing the car recall system include the United States, Japan, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia.

Sixth, V6 engine

The number of common cylinders for automobile engines is 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and l2 cylinders. Engines with a displacement of 1L or less are commonly used for 3 cylinders; (1-2.5)L is generally a 4-cylinder engine; 3L engines are generally 6 cylinders; 4L is 8 cylinders; and 5.5L or more is a 12-cylinder engine. In general, in the same cylinder diameter, the more the cylinder number, the larger the displacement, the higher the power; under the same displacement, the more the cylinder number, the smaller the cylinder diameter, the higher the rotation speed, and thus the larger the lifting power. . The arrangement of the cylinders mainly includes an in-line, a V-shape, a W-shape, and the like.

Generally, cylinders of engines below 5 cylinders are arranged in an in-line manner. A few 6-cylinder engines are also inline. In the past, there were also in-line 8-cylinder engines. The cylinder block of the in-line engine is lined up in a row, the cylinder block, the cylinder head and the crankshaft have a simple structure, low manufacturing cost, good low-speed torque characteristics, low fuel consumption, and wide application, and the disadvantage is low power. Generally, gasoline engines below 1L use 3-cylinder in-line, (1-2.5)L gasoline engines use in-line 4-cylinders, and some four-wheel drive vehicles use in-line 6-cylinders. Because of their small width, they can be equipped with superchargers and other facilities. The in-line 6-cylinder has better dynamic balance and relatively small vibration, so it is also used in some medium and high-altitude cars. (6-12) Cylinder engines are generally arranged in a V shape, with the VIO engine mainly mounted on the car. The V-shaped engine is small in length and height, and is very convenient to arrange. It is generally considered that the V-shaped engine is a relatively advanced engine and has become one of the symbols of the sedan class. The V8 engine is very complex and expensive to manufacture, so it is used less. V12, the engine is too big and too heavy, only a few high-class cars. The most common engines currently in use are mainly inline 4 (14) and V 6 (V6) engines. In general, the displacement of the V6 engine is higher than that of the 14th, and the V6 is smoother and quieter than the 14-run. U is mainly installed on ordinary cars, while V6 is installed in mid- to high-end cars.

Seven, compression ratio

The compression ratio refers to the ratio of the total cylinder volume to the combustion chamber volume, which indicates the degree to which the gas in the cylinder is compressed when the piston moves from the bottom dead center to the top dead center. The compression ratio is an important parameter for measuring the performance of a car engine. Generally speaking, the greater the compression ratio of the engine; the higher the pressure and temperature of the mixture at the end of the compression stroke, the faster the combustion speed, and the greater the power of the engine, the better the economy. However, when the compression ratio is too large, not only can the combustion situation be further improved, but abnormal combustion such as deflagration and surface ignition may occur, which in turn affects the performance of the engine. In addition, the increase in engine compression ratio is also limited by exhaust pollution regulations.

Eight, power

Power is the work done by an object in a unit of time. In a certain range of speed, the power of the car engine is nonlinearly proportional to the engine speed. The faster the speed, the greater the power, and the smaller the vice versa, which reflects the function of the car in a certain period of time. Compared with the same type of car, the higher the power, the higher the speed, and the higher the maximum speed of the car. The output power of the engine has a large relationship with the speed. As the speed ÷ increases, the power of the engine increases accordingly, but after a certain speed, the power decreases. Generally, the maximum output power of the engine is indicated, and the speed per minute (r/min) is marked, such as 100PS/5000r/min, that is, the maximum output power is 100 horsepower (73.5kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute. The maximum power is often used to describe the dynamic performance of the car. The maximum power is generally expressed in horsepower (PS) or kilowatts (kW), and 1 horsepower is equal to 0.735 kilowatts.

Nine, displacement

The cylinder working volume refers to the volume of gas swept by the piston from top dead center to bottom dead center. It is also called single cylinder displacement, which depends on the bore diameter and piston stroke. The engine displacement is the sum of the working volumes of the cylinders and is generally expressed in milliliters (CC). Engine displacement is one of the most important structural parameters. It is more representative of the size of the engine than the bore and number of cylinders. Many of the engine's specifications are closely related to displacement.

Ten, multi-point EFI

The electric fuel injection device of an automobile engine is generally composed of a fuel injection oil circuit, a sensor group and an electronic control unit. If the injector is installed in the original carburetor position, that is, the entire engine has only one gasoline injection point, this is a single point EFI; if the injector is installed on the intake pipe of each cylinder, that is, the injection of gasoline is made up of multiple places. (At least one injection point per cylinder) is sprayed into the cylinder, which is a multi-point EFI.

XI, torque

Torque is the force that causes an object to rotate. The torque of the engine is the torque that the engine outputs from the crankshaft end. It is inversely proportional to the engine speed under the condition of fixed power. The faster the speed, the smaller the torque, and vice versa, it reflects the load capacity of the car within a certain range. In some cases, it can truly reflect the "natural" of the car. For example, when starting or driving in the mountains, the higher the torque, the better the reaction of the car. Basic knowledge of automobiles, automotive knowledge. Compared with the same type of engine car, the larger the torque output, the larger the bearing capacity, the better the acceleration performance, the stronger the climbing force, the less the number of shifts, and the less the wear of the car. Especially when the car is started at zero speed, it shows the superiority of the high torque. The torque of the engine is expressed in terms of N.m. Like the power, the maximum output torque of the engine is also indicated, and the speed per minute (r/min) is also indicated. The maximum torque generally occurs in the middle and low speed range of the engine. As the speed increases, the torque will decrease.

Twelve, closed loop control

The closed-loop control of the engine's EFI system is a closed triangular relationship between the real-time oxygen sensor, the computer and the fuel quantity control device. The oxygen sensor "tells" the air-fuel ratio of the computer mixture, and the computer issues a command to the fuel quantity control device to adjust the air-fuel ratio (14.7:1) in the direction of the theoretical value. This adjustment often exceeds a theoretical value, the oxygen sensor detects it and reports the computer, and the computer sends a command back to 14.7:1. Because each adjustment cycle is fast, the air-fuel ratio does not deviate from 14.7:1, and once it is running, this closed-loop adjustment is continuous. The EFI engine with closed-loop control can keep the engine running under ideal conditions (the air-fuel ratio is not too much from the theoretical value), so that the car not only has better power performance, but also saves fuel.

Thirteen, overhead camshaft (OHC)

The camshaft mounting position of the engine is available in the following forms: lower, center, and overhead. Due to the high speed of the car engine, the speed per minute can reach more than 5000 rpm. To ensure the efficiency of intake and exhaust, the intake valve and the exhaust valve are upside down, that is, the overhead valve device, which is suitable for the camshaft. Three forms of installation. However, if the camshaft of the lower or middle type is used, because the distance between the valve and the camshaft is far, auxiliary parts such as the valve lifter and the tappet are required, resulting in more valve transmission components, complicated structure, large engine size, and Noise is also prone to occur at high speeds, and this can be changed with overhead camshafts. Therefore, modern car engines generally use overhead camshafts, which are placed above the engine, shortening the distance between the camshaft and the valve, omitting the valve tappet and tappet, simplifying the camshaft to the valve The transmission mechanism between the engine makes the structure of the engine more compact. More importantly, this installation method can reduce the quality of the reciprocating motion of the entire system and improve the transmission efficiency. According to the number of camshafts, it can be divided into single overhead camshaft (SOHC) and double overhead camshaft (DOHC). Since the mid-to-high-end car engine is generally multi-valve and V-cylinder, double camshaft is required. The intake and exhaust valves are separately controlled, so the double overhead camshaft is used by many famous engines.

Fourteen, multiple valves

The traditional engine is mostly an intake valve and an exhaust valve per cylinder. This two-valve valve distribution mechanism is relatively simple and the manufacturing cost is low. For an ordinary engine with a low output power requirement, it can be obtained. Satisfactory engine output and torque performance. The engine with large displacement and high power should adopt multi-valve technology. The simplest multi-valve technology is a three-valve structure, that is, an intake valve is added to the two-valve structure in one row and one row. In recent years, most of the newly developed cars of the world's major automobile companies have adopted a four-valve structure. Basic knowledge of automobiles, automotive knowledge. In the four-valve valve train, each cylinder has two intake valves and two exhaust valves. The four-valve structure can greatly improve the intake and exhaust efficiency of the engine. Most of the new cars use four-valve technology.

Fifteen, VTEC

The VTEC system is a variable valve timing and lift electronic control system. It is Honda's proprietary technology. It can adjust the valve timing and valve lift appropriately with changes in operating parameters such as engine speed, load, and water temperature. This allows the engine to achieve maximum efficiency at both high and low speeds. + In the VTEC system, there are three cam faces on the intake camshaft, respectively, which respectively push the three rocker arms on the rocker arm shaft. When the engine is at low speed or low load, there is no connection between the three rocker arms. The left and right rocker arms respectively push the two intake valves to make the two have different timing and lift to form a squeezing effect. At this time, the high-speed rocker arm in the middle does not move the valve, but does not perform ineffective motion on the rocker shaft. When the speed is continuously increasing, the sensors of the engine send the monitored parameters such as load, speed, speed and water temperature to the computer, and the computer analyzes and processes the information. When it is necessary to change to the high speed mode, the computer sends a signal to open the VTEC solenoid valve, so that the pressurized oil enters the rocker arm to push the piston, so that the three rocker arms are connected into one body, so that both valves work in the high speed mode. When the engine speed is reduced and the valve timing needs to be changed again, the computer will send a signal again to open the VTEC solenoid valve pressure at the beginning, so that the pressure oil leaks out and the valve returns to the low speed mode again.

Sixteen, VVT-i

The VVT-i. system is the abbreviation of Toyota's intelligent variable valve timing system. The VVT-i system has been installed on the engine of the latest Toyota sedan. Basic knowledge of automobiles, automotive knowledge. Toyota's VVT-i system continuously adjusts valve timing, but does not regulate valve lift. its work


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